Polná’s Jewish community was an integral part of the town from the 17th century. In 1682 the nobility gave the local Jews permission to establish their own closed quarter. One of the first buildings built there, in 1684–1685, was the synagogue.
Its original form and builders are unknown. Today, however, it a rectangular, partly brick structure. The fate of the synagogue closely mapped the fate of the ghetto. The population grew and the synagogue was extended. Like the ghetto it burned down several times before being rebuilt. It suffered the most damage during a great fire in 1863. During WWII it was used as a store for confiscated Jewish property. It had a similarly sad fate under the communists, who used it to store chemical fertiliser. The synagogue was at one point threatened with demolition but was saved by the Club for Old Polná, which repaired it after 1989. In 1994 it was returned to the Federation of Jewish Communities. Between 2011 and 2014, the synagogue and the Rabbi’s Residence underwent major renovations as part of the Revitalisation of Jewish Landmarks – 10 Stars project, financed by European funds.